A Hindu monk is called a sanyāsī, sādhu, or swāmi. A nun is called a sanyāsini, sādhvi, or swāmini. Such renunciates are accorded high respect in Hindu society, because their outward renunciation of selfishness and worldliness serves as an inspiration to householders who strive for mental renunciation.
Monks and nuns were expected to live with a minimum of possessions, which were to be voluntarily provided by the lay community. Lay followers also provided the daily food that monks required, and provided shelter for monks when they were needed.
Some orders and communities have already become extinct. There are however, still several thousand Anglican monks working today in approximately 200 communities around the world. The most surprising growth has been in the Melanesian countries of the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea.
The nuns pray the Divine Office together in choir five times a day, spend an hour and a half daily in mental prayer, do spiritual reading for at least a half hour a day, observe silence except during Recreation which is after dinner and supper; and engage in a variety of work: maintenance of the monastery, gardening, ...
Monks are forbidden from touching or coming close to women's bodies, because it is believed that a woman's body is contrary to a monk's vows. Thus, most temples in Thailand put an announcement which restricts women from entering.
There have been previous instances in the Church of nuns becoming pregnant, but in some cases, this was not after consensual sex. In February this year, the women's magazine of the Church's newspaper L'Osservatore Romano, reported on several cases of sexual abuse on nuns by clergymen.
Along with changing the Mass from Latin to the vernacular and allowing nuns to shed their habits and mingle among lay people regularly, came the increased exposure to alcohol for all clergy at church and social gatherings.
Hindus believe in one God and worship that one God under many manifestations, deities or images. Examples of Hindu deities are Krishna, Shiva, Rama and Durga. Hindus believe that existence is a cycle of birth, death and rebirth, governed by karma (a complex belief in cause and effect).
Tonsure can also refer to the secular practice of shaving all or part of the scalp to show support or sympathy, or to designate mourning. Current usage more generally refers to cutting or shaving for monks, devotees, or mystics of any religion as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem.
Aside from alcohol, some Buddhists avoid consuming strong-smelling plants, specifically garlic, onion, chives, leeks, and shallots, as these vegetables are thought to increase sexual desire when eaten cooked and anger when eaten raw ( 3 ).
Some high level Buddhists have drawn analogies between Jesus and Buddhism, e.g. in 2001 the Dalai Lama stated that "Jesus Christ also lived previous lives", and added that "So, you see, he reached a high state, either as a Bodhisattva, or an enlightened person, through Buddhist practice or something like that." Thich ...
Conscious eating is followed among all Buddhists. Buddha advised monks to avoid eating 10 kinds of meat for self-respect and protection: humans, elephants, horses, dogs, snakes, lions, tigers, boars and hyenas.
According to the Regularis Concordia, on the Saturday after Good Friday, 'if they can, the helpers [ministri] or boys [pueri] shall shave and bathe themselves. ' If there wasn't enough time for all the monks to wash on Saturday, some could bathe after Vespers on Good Friday.
Between praying up to seven times a day and working a medieval monk got little sleep. They averaged approximately five hours sleep between evening prayers and the 2am church service, and then snatched another half an hour before being up at 4am for more prayer.
Women can be ordained as the equivalent of monks in China, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, mostly dominated by the Mahayana school of Buddhism. Female ordination is not available in the Tibetan tradition nor in Cambodia, Laos or Myanmar.
Each night, these nuns allow themselves no more than three hours of sleep. Their calling is an extreme one: to stay inside the walls of their convent and spend their days and nights in prayer and silent contemplation.
According to the Dominican Monastery of St. Jude, most nuns in monasteries rise around 5 a.m. to prepare for reading of morning prayer. This is followed by an hour when they return to their chambers and participate in private prayer and reflection.